Developmental milestones can be divided into language milestones, cognitive (thinking and reasoning), emotional and social, and motor – sensory development, and of course, physical development. With regards to cognitive, language and emotional/social, children develop more complex sentence structure, grammar, understanding of concepts, empathy, and all other aspects of personal development become more sophisticated as the grades progress. See the following links for a year by year description of how children at this age develop.
How you can nurture:
More on what to expect, and what you can do along the way:
And about building reading, writing, listening and talking skills: