Milestones: Ages 1-4 Years

How Your Child Develops…

Cognitive (Learning/Understanding)


Between Ages One and Two

  • Points to named objects
  • Follows simple instructions
  • Enjoys listening to age appropriate stories/songs
  • Acquires more words every month, and is able to say them
  • Uses simple phrases by 18-24 months
  • Repeats new words
Between Ages Two and Three:

  • Understands most of what is being said
  • Follows a two point command
  • Understands “on/”in”/”under” etc
  • Uses three-five word sentences
  • Can be understood by Strangers
  • Has new sounds eg n,w,h,y
  • Can say name, age, and use pronouns eg We, I, You, me

Here are more ways you can help your child by nurturing a language rich environment, and keeping track of their speech development by being aware of the normal pattern of speech development. The following websites
give you information you need to develop and nurture language and speech development at home and on the go.

MyHealth.Alberta/Milestones overview – This link takes you to the milestones according to age on the MyHealth Website.

Speech-Language And Audiology Canada/Resources– This website has tons of useful information and links to other helpful resources as well.

And More…..

One – Two Years, What should my child be doing ? (
Two-Three Years, What should my child be doing ? (
Talkbox 1 yr old pdf
Talkbox 2 yrs old pdf
Preschool Talkbox Home Page

Between the ages of three to four years old, your child can understand what the basic colors and  shapes and simple concepts. They know who father, mother, brothers/sisters/ grandmother/grandfather etc are. When talking your child can be a real chatterbox, using up to four sentences at a time, with many words in those sentences, and can be understood by strangers. They talk about their day, they use pronouns (I, We, You, He etc) and can understand and answer basic “What” and “Where” etc questions.  More info at the following links:

Speech Development, Ages 3-4
Speech Development, Ages 4-5
Talkbox, Ages 3-4 Pdf
Talkbox, Ages 4-5 Pdf

A child with Childhood Apraxia of Speech, however, will not be doing any of this with out intervention. By now, if your child is not saying many words, you should already be in the services of a Speech -Language Pathologist and if your child isn’t saying anything or unable to effectively communicate,  be considering some form of Alternate and Augmentative Communication in the interim until they learn how to speak. Speech and Language treatment is essential to give a child communication tools. Children who can’t communicate effectively tend to have issues with their behaviour, born out of frustration at not having their needs met. Communicating with peers in a social setting can also be fraught with conflict if a child is not understood and unable to verbalize their needs and feelings  with peers.  Self esteem issues can arise. It is so important to support children who aren’t communicating at this point.
If your child is not doing any of the above, is not saying more than ten words by fifteen months, you should get an assessment.

The first point of Assessment for Speech and Language Services is your Public Health Centre. A visit to your Family Doctor is encouraged check out any delays or concerns.
A Speech and Language Pathologist at an Alberta Health Services Public Health Centre can do an assessment to determine the best approach for Speech Services.

Here is the link to Public Health Centres in the Edmonton Area (Central Intake):

Alberta Health Services, Edmonton & Area Preschool Speech & Language Services Central Intake

Through this intake, you can make an appointment for a Speech Assessment at a Public Health Centre in your area. Once assessed, the Speech-Language Pathologist will determine the best course of treatment intervention.  This is funded through Alberta Health Services (AHS).  However, the diagnosis of a Motor Speech disorder such as CAS is not always quite obvious, and so initially other therapies usually tried. However, if the SLP at Public Health suspects CAS they will have them treated with a program that incorporates treatment for motor speech disorders.  However, at any time if you feel your child is not making progress, or you want another opinion, you are at liberty to get a private Speech/Language assessment done.